Our fifth grade chemists finished their unit with a pop! Adding Mentos candies to soda causes a sudden eruption of carbon dioxide gas. Students pondered if the gas was the product of a chemical reaction or was a quick release of the regular fizz in the sodas.
So what’s going on here? Why do Mentos turn ordinary bottles of diet soda into geysers of fun? The answer is a little more complicated than you might think. Let’s start with the soda . . .
Soda pop is made of sugar or artificial sweetener, flavoring, water, and preservatives. The thing that makes soda bubbly is invisible carbon dioxide (CO2), which is pumped into bottles at the bottling factory using lots of pressure. If you shake a bottle or can of soda, some of the gas comes out of the solution and the bubbles cling to the inside walls of the container (thanks to tiny pits and imperfections on the inside surface of the bottle called nucleation sites). When you open the container, the bubbles quickly rise to the top pushing the liquid out of the way. In other words, the liquid sprays everywhere.
Is there another way for the CO2 to escape? Try this. Drop an object like a raisin or a piece of uncooked pasta into a glass of soda and notice how bubbles immediately form on the surface of the object. These are CO2 bubbles leaving the soda and attaching themselves to the object. For example, adding salt to soda causes it to foam up because thousands of little bubbles form on the surface of each grain of salt. This bubbling process is called nucleation, and the places where the bubbles form, whether on the sides of the can, on an object, or around a tiny grain of salt, are the nucleation sites.
Why are Mentos so Special?
The reason why Mentos work so well is twofold—tiny pits on the surface of the mint, and the weight of the Mentos itself. Each Mentos mint has thousands of tiny pits all over the surface. These tiny pits act as nucleation sites—perfect places for CO2 bubbles to form. As soon as the Mentos hit the soda, bubbles form all over the surfaces of the candies and then quickly rise to the surface of the liquid. Couple this with the fact that the Mentos candies are heavy and sink to the bottom of the bottle and you’ve got a double whammy. The gas released by the Mentos literally pushes all of the liquid up and out of the bottle in an incredible soda blast. (Thanks to Steve Spangler Science for this explanation.)
- Learning in Action